By John G. Webster (Editor)
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Extra info for 25.Electromagnetic Subsurface Remote Sensing
In the NIR or short-wave infrared (SWIR) spectral regions], the spectral band ratio will be proportional to the surface reflectance ratio. In this case, the spectral band ratio is insensitive to topographic effects. If the path radiance is not small, then it should be reduced or removed using a technique such as Dark Object Subtraction (DOS) before spectral band ratios are calculated (2). Vegetation Indices. A number of specific ratio formulae have been defined in attempts to obtain features that relate to the amount of photosynthetic vegetation on the Earth’s surface.
The source waveform w(t) is therefore a blurring (or smearing) function that makes it difﬁcult to recognize the reﬂectivity sequence by directly observing the trace s(t). If it were possible to generate a source waveform that corresponds to an impulse function δ(t), then, except for the effects of random noise, each trace will indeed be a recording of the reﬂectivity sequence. , where most of the energy is concentrated over a very short interval of time) has been a dilemma that has, for years, received considerable attention in the geophysical industry and related literature.
The ﬁlter f(t), if it exists, is called the inverse ﬁlter of the seismic source w(t). The nature of this inverse ﬁlter can also be examined in the frequency domain. Taking the Fourier transform of both sides of Eq. (29), one obtains where From this, it follows that: Prediction Error Filtering A special case of the above derivation is when the desired output signal is an advanced version of the input signal; that is, dk = xk+p . In such a case, the ﬁlter is called a p-step ahead predictor. That is, at sample k, it predicts xk+p from past values of the input.
25.Electromagnetic Subsurface Remote Sensing by John G. Webster (Editor)