By Rudy Van der Elst
Книга характеризует более чем three hundred видов рыб, которых можно наиболее часто увидеть либо поймать в прибрежных районах Южной Африки. Каждый раздел, посвященный определенному виду, включает детальное описание, полноцветную фотографию, заметки по образу жизни, включая многие малоизвестные и интересные аспекты поведения, карты локального распространения и встречаемости в мире, наиболее современные ограничения в отношения ловли. Книга будет полезна всем, кто интересуется рыбами и рыбалкой.
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Additional resources for A guide to the common sea fishes of southern Africa
Ratfishes are oviparous and produce keratinoid egg cases with a long, pointed end and small hooks that anchor them to the substrate. REFERENCES : Compagno, in Carpenter and Niem, 1998; Didier, in Carpenter, 2003; Didier, 2004; Lund and Grogan, 1997; Patterson, 1965. CHIMAERID CHARACTERISTICS: 1) body elongate with a whip-like tail, body usually naked 2 ) one external gill opening, anterior to pectoral fin 3 ) pectoral fins broad and wing-like 4 ) two dorsal fins: the first high with an erectile spine, the second low with a long base 5 ) mouth inferior 6 ) conspicuous lateral-line canals on snout 7 ) males with a club-like clasper on top of head 8 ) pelvic claspers bi-lobed 9 ) spiracles absent ILLUSTRATED SPECIMENS: A) Hydrolagus colliei, SIO 49–121,134 mm TL (tip of tail missing) B) Hydrolagus colliei, SIO 85–73, 448 mm TL (lateral view of head) C) Hydrolagus colliei, SIO 85–73, 448 mm TL (frontal view of head) ELASMOBRANCHII—Sharks and Rays The Elasmobranchii, with 12 extant orders of sharks and rays, is the sister group to the Holocephali.
This unusual feature increases capabilities of both vision and the electromagnetic sense and also improves maneuverability. The phylogenetic relationships of hammerheads were studied by Naylor (1992) and Lim et al. (2010). Hammerheads are top predators that feed on bony fishes, sharks and rays, and squids and other invertebrates. Unlike most sharks, hammerheads often form large schools near seamounts during the day, likely dispersing to hunt individually at night. They are viviparous, with yolk-sac placentas (Musick, 2011; Musick and Ellis, 2005).
Vertebral column is deflected dorsally and extends along the upper, larger caudal-fin lobe. Anatomy of Fishes 7 Mouth Positions In addition to the size of the gape and the size and type of teeth, the position of a fish’s mouth provides clues to its feeding habits. These include the following: TERMINAL SUBTERMINAL INFERIOR SUPERIOR Mouth located at the tip of the snout. Mouth located below the tip of the snout. Mouth opens ventrally, well posterior to the snout. Mouth opens dorsally. Oral and Pharyngeal Jaw Diversity In the chondrichthyan fishes, the upper jaw is formed by the palatoquadrate cartilage, while in the rayfinned fishes, it is formed by two bones, the maxilla and the premaxilla.
A guide to the common sea fishes of southern Africa by Rudy Van der Elst