By Khaled Fahmy
Whereas scholarship has frequently seen Mehmed Ali Pasha because the founding father of glossy Egypt, Khaled Fahmy bargains a brand new interpretation of his position within the upward push of Egyptian nationalism, firmly finding him in the Ottoman context as an formidable, if problematical, Ottoman reformer. Basing his paintings on formerly overlooked archival fabric, the writer demonstrates how Mehmed Ali sought to improve the Egyptian economic system and to accumulate the military, now not as a way of gaining Egyptian independence from the Ottoman empire, yet to extra his personal targets for famous hereditary rule over the province. by means of concentrating on the military and the soldier’s day-by-day stories, the writer constructs an in depth photograph of makes an attempt at modernization and reform, how they have been deliberate and carried out through a variety of reformers, and the way the general public at huge understood and accommodated them. during this approach, the paintings contributes to the bigger methodological and theoretical debates touching on nation-building and the development of kingdom strength within the specific context of early nineteenth-century Egypt.
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Additional resources for All the Pasha's Men: Mehmed Ali His Army and the Making of Modern Egypt
119. , Alan Sheridan (New York: Vintage Books, 1979). Mitchell, Colonising Egypt, pp. 153-54. 79 80 The Pasha and his nizam 31 Egyptian society after the British military takeover in 1882. Rather, it was a process that had started much earlier and which entailed the complete restructuring of Egyptian society - the government bureaucracy, the military, the schools, cities, towns, streets, houses, families and the body of the individual - in such a way that made Egypt not only more profitable, more productive, but also represented the country in a manner that produced the same division of the world into two domains that had been accomplished earlier in Europe and which made it more accessible to European control.
580. Abul-Futuh Radwan, Tarikh Matba'at Bulaq [History of the Bulaq Press] (Cairo: Bulaq, 1953), pp. 342-43. 'Abdel-Karim, Tarikh al-Ta'lim, pp. 655-64. Afaf Lutfi al-Sayyid Marsot, Egypt in the Reign of Muhammad Ali (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1984). , p. 235. 22 Introduction goods were barred from Egyptian markets as well as from other areas under the Pasha's rule. "56 The present book, while accepting the assumption that Britain did indeed view Mehmed Ali's activities suspiciously and that her policies as represented and pursued by Lord Palmerston were, in fact, instrumental in curbing Mehmed Ali's power, does not unproblematically assume that the reason for this hostile stance was its fear of the Pasha's industrial schemes.
Having lost that protection, the infant industries and the services connected to them fell to ruins. The second incident that is usually highlighted to stress how European efforts were most instrumental in aborting this impressive "experiment" in development was the firman of 1841 which was passed by the Ottoman Sultan but which was a result of European pressure. This firman stripped Egypt of the territorial possessions that it had managed to acquire during the preceding two decades and, of equal significance, reduced the size of its armed forces to 18,000 men during peacetime, only a small fraction of its original size.
All the Pasha's Men: Mehmed Ali His Army and the Making of Modern Egypt by Khaled Fahmy