By Julia K. Parrish, William M. Hamner
Faculties of fish, flocks of birds, and swarms of bugs are examples of three-d aggregation. overlaying either invertebrate and vertebrate species, the authors examine this pervasive organic phenomenon via various disciplines, from physics to arithmetic to biology. the 1st part is dedicated to some of the equipment, in general optical and acoustic, used to assemble three-d info through the years. the second one part makes a speciality of analytical tools used to quantify trend, staff kinetics, and interindividual interactions in the team. The part on behavioral ecology and evolution bargains with the features of aggregative habit from the viewpoint of an inherently egocentric person member. the ultimate part makes use of types to clarify how staff dynamics on the person point creates emergent development on the point of the crowd.
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Extra info for Animal Groups in Three Dimensions: How Species Aggregate
At present, these technologies have yet to be applied to track an individual, or group of individuals, as they move through space and time. An interesting result of my broad review of these many approaches to three-dimensional mensuration is that almost none of them meet our specific goal of simultaneous good resolution in both time and space. It is also clear that one of the problems in applying the above techniques to sensing individual animals and animal aggregations is the often prohibitive cost.
G. fluorescence imaging). At present, these technologies have yet to be applied to track an individual, or group of individuals, as they move through space and time. An interesting result of my broad review of these many approaches to three-dimensional mensuration is that almost none of them meet our specific goal of simultaneous good resolution in both time and space. It is also clear that one of the problems in applying the above techniques to sensing individual animals and animal aggregations is the often prohibitive cost.
One can easily image the side of a cube containing 1000 elements; however, in three dimensions, the total number of voxels in the image is 109. Three-dimensional imaging thus places severe demands on both processing speed and memory storage. Additional complications often arise because the actual measurement is, in fact, a mathematically transformed attribute of the real three-dimensional object. Suppose that we desire a vector X which consists of 109 elements. What actually is measured is vector Y, related to X via a linear transformation X - H Y.
Animal Groups in Three Dimensions: How Species Aggregate by Julia K. Parrish, William M. Hamner